Alexander A. Myburg, and 79 of his associates have sequenced and assembled the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis and published their resultsonline 11th June, 2014 in Nature. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, the investigation revealed, 34%, the largest reported so far, occurs in tandem duplications. This is the largest proportion thus far reported in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.